Commonly used as a carbon-zinc dry cells. The cathode is made of zinc cylinder containing ammonium chloride electrolyte, inert filler for small amounts of zinc chloride, electrolytes and water into a paste, the positive electrode is wrapped around a doped with manganese dioxide paste electrolyte a carbon rod. The electrode reaction is: zinc anode zinc atoms become ions (Zn++), releasing electrons, positive ammonium ion (NH4+) gains electrons and become ammonia and hydrogen. Drive to eliminate polarization of hydrogen with manganese dioxide. Electromotive force is approximately 1.5 volts. Most commonly used lead-acid batteries, the plates are made of lead alloy grids, electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid. The plates were covered with lead sulfate. But after charging, on the positive plate lead dioxide, lead sulfate into negative lead converted to metallic lead sulfate. Discharges, chemical reactions occur in the opposite direction.